ANNA UNIVERSITY APRIL 2012 PRACTICAL VIVA QUESTIONS


Anna University April 2012 Examination Practical/Project Viva Voce (16.04.2012 � 28.04.2012)

Anna University Practical Examination April 2012 Has Been Scheduled Between 16.04.2012 � 28.04.2012

Slot1: 16.04.2012 � 21.04.2012

Slot2: 23.04.2012 � 28.04.2012

Anna University Affiliated Colleges That Taken Slot1 Has To Conduct Practical And Project Viva-Voce (Final Year) Between 16th April To 21th April 2012

Anna University Affiliated Colleges That Taken Slot2 Has To Conduct Practical And Project Viva-Voce (Final Year) Between 23rd April To 28th April 2012 


CSE & IT FOURTH SEMESTER PRACTICAL LAB


CSE & IT SIXTHTH SEMESTER PRACTICAL LAB

GE2321 Communication Skills Lab
                                                                                                      
EEE FOURTH SEMESTER PRACTICAL LAB


EEE SIXTH SEMESTER PRACTICAL LAB

EE2356 Microprocessor and Micro controller Laboratory
EE2357 Presentation Skills and Technical Seminar

 ECE FOURTH SEMESTER PRACTICAL LAB

 ECE SIXTH SEMESTER PRACTICAL LAB

GE2321 Communication Skills Lab

MECHANICAL FOURTH SEMESTER PRACTICAL LAB

ME 2258 Manufacturing Technology Lab � II
ME 2256 Strength of Materials Lab
ME 2257 Computer Aided Machine Drawing Laboratory

MECHANICAL SIXTH SEMESTER PRACTICAL LAB

ME 2355 Thermal Engineering Lab � II
ME 2356 Design & Fabrication Project
GE 2321 Communication Skills Lab

CIVIL FOURTH SEMESTER PRACTICAL LAB

CE 2257 Strength of Materials Lab
CE 2258 Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory
CE 2259 Survey Practical � II

CIVIL  SIXTH SEMESTER PRACTICAL LAB

CE2355 Environmental  and Irrigation Engineering  Drawing
CE2356 Environmental Engineering Laboratory
CE2357 Survey Camp

HOW TO ESTIMATE LEVEL OF GLUCOSE IN BLOOD SERUM

































AIM:  To estimate level of glucose in Blood serum.

REAGENT USED: 
Sample:
Serum/Plasma (must be separated from the cells within 30 minutes. Excessive concentration of sodium
fluoride may affect result by inhibiting color development).
Reagents: 
Reagent 1: Glucose Reagent
Reagent 2: Glucose diluent.
Reagent 3: Glucose standard
Working reagent preparation: 
Add 50 ml of reagent 2 to reagent 1 vial and store at 2-8C in dark colour bottle because it is light sensitive. 

APPARATUS USED: 
Test tubes, Test tube stand, Micropipettes, Spectrophotometer

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: 
Glucose estimation provides valuable information about the course, severity and therapeutic control of
Diabetes Mellitus. Fasting Glucose levels exceeding 120 mg/dL and 2 hours Post-Prandial Glucose levels
exceeding 140 mg/dL indicate a strong possibility of Diabetes Mellitus. If in an oral Glucose Tolerance
Test, the Plasma Glucose level of 2 hours Sample exceeds 200 mg/dL, the diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus is
established. In impaired tolerance, the 2 hours Plasma Glucose lies between 140 mg/dL and 199 mg/dL. 
Increased concentration: Hyperglycemia may occur in Diabetes Mellitus, in patients receiving intravenous
fluids containing Glucose and during severe stress and Cerebrovascular accidents. 
Decreased concentration: Hypoglycemia may be the result of an Insulinoma, Insulin ad ministration,
inborn errors of Carbohydrate metabolism or fasting. 

ASSAY PRINCIPLE: 
Glucose Oxidase (GOD) oxidizes glucose to gluconic Acid and hydrogen peroxide. In presence of enzyme
Peroxidase, released hydrogen peroxide is coupled with phenol and 4.-Aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) to form
coloured Quinoneimine dye. Absorbance of coloured dye is measured at 505 nm and is directly proportional
to glucose concentration In the Sample. 

    Glucose Oxidase
Glucose + O2 + H2O                                          Gluconic acid + H2O 2


 Peroxidase
H2O 2 + Phenol + 4-AAP               Quinoneimine dye + H2O

PROCEDURE:
For automatic analyser:
Mark the tubes as blank, standard and test and add the content according to the table given below:
Pipettes into tube marked   Blank   Standard        Test 
Serum / Plasma     10 �L
Reagent 3                                          10 �L  
Working Glucose Reagent  1000 �L  1000 �L  1000 �L

Mix well incubates at 370 C for 10 minutes or at room temperature (15-300 C) fir 30 minutes. 
Programme the analyser as per assay parameters.
1.  Blank the analyser with Reagent blank.
2.  Measure absorbance of Standard followed by the test
3.  Calculate results as per given calculation formula

For spectrophotometers/Colorimeters:
Mark the tubes as blank, standard and test and add the content according to the table given below:
Pipettes into tube marked   Blank   Standard        Test 
Serum / Plasma     20 �L
Reagent 3                                          20 �L  
Working Glucose Reagent  1500 �L  1500 �L  1500 �L

 Mix well, incubates at 370 C for 10 minutes or at room temperature (15-300 C) for 30 minutes. Now add
1500 �L of distilled water in each tube and mix well. 
1.  Blank the spectrophotometers/Colorimeters with Reagent blank.
2.  Measure absorbance of Standard followed by the test at 505 nm (read absorbance at 490-550 nm).
3.  Calculate results as per given calculation formula.

CALCULATION:

Serum / Plasma glucose (mg/ dL) =        Absorbance of Test        X    100
          Absorbance of Standard

OBSERVATION TABLE:
S. No.  Reading for tubes  Optical density (OD) at 505 nm
1. Blank                                                
2. Standard                                                
3. Test                                                 

PRECAUTIONS:
1.  Use clean and dry glassware.
2.  For best results, it is recommended to bring required reagents to selected assay temperature before
use.
3.  To avoid reagent deterioration, take required amount of reagent for assay and immediately store the
reagent bottle tightly capped, in refrigerator.
4.  Over the time, reagent may develop light pink colour which does no affect the reagent performance
up to reagent blank absorbance of 0.20.A.U. 

C PROGRAM TO IMPLEMENT TREE TRAVERSAL


Algorithm for tree traversal

Preorder(root)
If root = null then exit
Process root->info
Preorder root->left;
Preorder root->right
Exit

Inorder(root)
If root = null then exit
Inorder root->left
Process root->info
Inorder root->right
Exit

Postorder(root)
If root = null then exit
Postorder root->left
Postorder root->right
Postorder root->info
exit


// traversing a tree

#include<stdio.h>
struct rec
{
  long num;
  struct rec *left;
  struct rec *right;
};
struct rec *tree=NULL;
struct rec *insert(struct rec *tree,long num);
void preorder(struct rec *tree);
void inorder(struct rec *tree);
void postorder(struct rec *tree);
int count=1;
main()
{
  int choice;
  long digit;
  do
  {
     choice=select();
     switch(choice)
        {
  case 1: puts("Enter integer: To quit enter 0");
   scanf("%ld",&digit);
   while(digit!=0)


          {
    tree=insert(tree,digit);
    scanf("%ld",&digit);
          }continue;
  case 2: puts("\npreorder traversing TREE");
   preorder(tree);continue;
  case 3: puts("\ninorder traversing TREEE");
   inorder(tree);continue;
  case 4: puts("\npostorder traversing TREE");
   postorder(tree);continue;
  case 5: puts("END");exit(0);
  }
 }while(choice!=5);
}
int select()
{
int selection;
  do
    {
    puts("Enter 1: Insert a node in the BT");
    puts("Enter 2: Display(preorder)the BT");
    puts("Enter 3: Display(inorder)the BT");
    puts("Enter 4: Display(postorder)the BT");
  puts("Enter 5: END");
  puts("Enter your choice");
  scanf("%d",&selection);
         if((selection<1)||(selection>5))
   {
        puts("wrong choice:Try again");
     getch(); }
     }while((selection<1)||(selection>5));
     return (selection);
}
struct rec *insert(struct rec *tree,long digit)
{
  if(tree==NULL)
    {
  tree=(struct rec *)malloc(sizeof(struct rec));
  tree->left=tree->right=NULL;
  tree->num=digit;count++;
    }
else
  if(count%2==0)
 tree->left=insert(tree->left,digit);
else
 tree->right=insert(tree->right,digit);
  return(tree);
}
void preorder(struct rec *tree)
{
  if(tree!=NULL)
    {
  printf("%12ld\n",tree->num);
  preorder(tree->left);
  preorder(tree->right);
    }
}


void inorder(struct rec *tree)
{
  if(tree!=NULL)
      {
  inorder(tree->left);
  printf("%12ld\n",tree->num);
  inorder(tree->right);
      }
}
void postorder(struct rec *tree)
{
  if(tree!=NULL)
    {
  postorder(tree->left);
  postorder(tree->right);
  printf("%12ld\n",tree->num);
    }

}
 


int select()
{
int selection;
  do
    {
    puts("Enter 1: Insert a node in the BT");
    puts("Enter 2: Display(preorder)the BT");
    puts("Enter 3: Display(inorder)the BT");
    puts("Enter 4: Display(postorder)the BT");
  puts("Enter 5: END");
  puts("Enter your choice");
  scanf("%d",&selection);
         if((selection<1)||(selection>5))
   {
        puts("wrong choice:Try again");
     getch(); }
     }while((selection<1)||(selection>5));
     return (selection);
}
struct rec *insert(struct rec *tree,long digit)
{
  if(tree==NULL)
    {
  tree=(struct rec *)malloc(sizeof(struct rec));
  tree->left=tree->right=NULL;
  tree->num=digit;count++;
    }
else
  if(count%2==0)
 tree->left=insert(tree->left,digit);
else
 tree->right=insert(tree->right,digit);
  return(tree);
}


void preorder(struct rec *tree)
{
  if(tree!=NULL)
    {
  printf("%12ld\n",tree->num);
  preorder(tree->left);
  preorder(tree->right);
    }
}
void inorder(struct rec *tree)
{
  if(tree!=NULL)
      {
  inorder(tree->left);
  printf("%12ld\n",tree->num);
  inorder(tree->right);
      }
}
void postorder(struct rec *tree)
{
  if(tree!=NULL)
    {
  postorder(tree->left);
  postorder(tree->right);
  printf("%12ld\n",tree->num);
    }